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It was within this context that Corbetta published the first Guitarre royalle. He had composed much of the collection while living and working in London in the s, and he returned to Paris in to oversee its engraving. On August 5, , Samuel Pepys recorded in his diary a chance encounter with Corbetta. The first Guitarre royalle , some of which Corbetta surely performed for Pepys and the Count, exploded these expectations.

Because there are always those envious who would be able to say that my manner of playing is too difficult, because part of my compositions approaches the manner of the lute, I will be able to respond to them with truth that I do not know a single chord on that instrument, and that I have never had an inclination for something other than the guitar alone. My manner of playing is so different from that of the lute, that people who have knowledge of the matter immediately recognize as much, and if one finds something difficult in it, it is because it is above the common manner, being the best way of playing and best provided [ fournie ] to yet appear before the public.

Corbetta wrote with obvious indignation. Evidently, some had complained that he composed for the guitar as if it were a lute. As we have seen, many amateurs played the former precisely to escape the difficulties of the latter. But Corbetta remained unmoved by their plight. Indeed, the title of the collection may allude to an earlier and now lost publication for the lute by Pierre Lespiaud, Le Luth royal. The problem, of course, was that a vast gulf separated the musical abilities of most guitarists from those of Corbetta.

In tablature, a rhythmic value, once given, is assumed to hold until a different rhythmic value supersedes it. As a courtesy to players, however, many tablatures from this era reiterate the current rhythmic value at the beginning of every measure, even if the rhythm has not changed. These helpful reminders prevent the fledgling musician from losing his or her place rhythmically. Corbetta eschewed this practice and indicated rhythm only when strictly necessary. Multiple measures often pass without a single rhythmic sign.

While this dearth of rhythmic markers likely posed little challenge to the practiced musician, it nevertheless unsettled amateurs of modest ability. Our amateur guitarist found the practice disorienting. Taking the initiative, he or she studiously wrote down in ink now red from oxidation the current rhythm at the head of every measure of one sarabande Example 3.

These marks helped to guide the amateur through the otherwise formidable challenges this piece presents. Corbetta often does this in the book. In one instance, upon encountering an unusually long space caused by the deletion of two consecutive bar lines, he counted back three beats from the next complete measure and drew in a bar line himself see the red bar line in Example 4. This sarabande is the only piece to bear amendments of the amateur, who perhaps gave up in frustration and opted for a less trying diversion. Little is known of his life.

As he explains in the preface, he intends the book for those who teach and those who hope to learn. Any music is possible on the guitar, he claims, provided the composer skillfully sets it. In any case, a rhythmic marker appears at the head of every measure as a concession to the amateur. The re-composition of this passage likely rendered an otherwise difficult work accessible to the modestly talented amateur. In his two books a new aesthetic for guitar music is discernable, one forged through a process of musical borrowing and technical simplification. Indebted stylistically to Corbetta, this aesthetic nonetheless rejected the advanced technique his music demanded.

It instead emphasized the ease of performance expected of the guitar by amateurs.

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In his preface, addressed to all honestes gens , he writes:. Those most understanding of lovely gallantry know well that the guitar has a cavalier and casual character which is particular to it. This is why the greatest princes of Europe who have wanted to play some instrument have preferred the guitar to all others, and sometimes deign to make of it a sweet amusement. Both composers employed a mixture of strummed and plucked technique, and both excerpts begin with a strummed eighth-note pickup chord leading to a strummed dotted-quarter-note chord on the downbeat.

Ease remained a potent desideratum. It was as a guitarist, however, that he best pleased Louis XIV. However relaxing the compositions of this first collection may have been for Louis XIV, many of those who purchased and attempted to perform the music encountered irksome technical difficulties. While the chords formed by the left hand in this example are not particularly difficult, the plucked cross-string arpeggios in the right hand demand a high level of accuracy and digital agility.

The thumb in particular must leap quickly between the fifth, fourth, and third courses. Fretting the fingerboard is among the most difficult techniques for guitarists to master, especially those with small hands and fingers, who often struggle to fret multiple strings with one finger. The opening prelude, reproduced in full in Example 12 , is a model of clarity and ease compared to the earlier prelude. Aside from a few strummed chords, the texture never exceeds two simultaneous voices and requires no right-hand gymnastics comparable to the opening arpeggios of the prelude.

The prelude is also almost devoid of difficult fretting the chord at the end of measure 4 is an exception; the A chord in the penultimate measure could be fretted with a single finger but need not be. The other compositions contained in the collection are, in general, cut from the same cloth. In other words, the performative needs of the audience—amateur guitarists of the city and court—set the technical boundaries of the second collection.

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These new boundaries account for many of the musical features characteristic of this collection, including streamlined textures, preponderance of strummed chords, and simplified counterpoint. Following its publication, however, there is evidence to suggest that Corbetta developed a keener interest in French amateur musicianship, or at least a better understanding of its technical limitations.

A rhymed newspaper article in the style of Jean Loret records a performance he gave in February of Indeed, the second Guitarre royalle is the first publication in France to include compositions for two guitars. If these duets are in fact the same compositions performed by Corbetta and Plantier in , Corbetta likely composed them with the amateur in mind, anticipating her musical preferences, social requirements, and technical abilities.

Their inclusion in the second Guitarre royalle and prominent placement at the opening of the collection may have signaled a new sensitivity to matters of ease and amateur performance. Addressed to the amateurs de la guitarre , the preface reads in part:. To satisfy the inclination I have always had for the guitar, I wanted to travel to several places in Europe to see those who make a profession of it. As they [the professional guitarists] begged me to give to the public some compositions following their manner of playing, I had some published several times to content them.

There were some for those who play this instrument indifferently [ mediocrement ] and those who play it well.

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Today, as the occasion presents itself to publish again some new compositions, I have wanted to conform myself to the manner that best pleases his Majesty, seeing that it is among the others the most chromatic, the most delicate, and the least cumbersome [ embarassante ]. I hope that this great monarch, who has sometimes honored me with his wishes, will add to my happiness the honor of his approbation and protection.

Corbetta here confirms that his earlier compositions were professional in nature—he composed them to satisfy the curiosity of the professional guitarists he had met during his travels through Europe. This fact explains the relative difficulty of his earlier publications. Similar harmonies can be found in many of the examples reproduced earlier in this essay, e. In short, the prefaces to the and collections present outlooks as different as their music. While the first vigorously defends difficulty in guitar music, the second celebrates the delicate, unencumbered style best suited to Louis XIV and, by extension, all those of noble bearing.

As he claimed in the preface to the Guitarre royalle , his manner of playing was unprecedented, above the common manner, la meilleure. He seems to have struggled to compose music that would please both the market and himself, and even his easiest pieces are rarely as simple as those of his contemporaries. That Corbetta would have made such an effort speaks to the personal and professional relations he had developed with his adopted homeland.

One of his four Saisons , it is based on an earlier drawing of the same name by his older contemporary Antoine Dieu see Figure 1. The lute, whose reputation for difficulty had all but expelled it from musical life in eighteenth-century France, likely clashed with the atmosphere of leisure and pleasure conjured by Watteau. As Charles Sorel had written sixty years earlier see par. Mondain performers required ease in their music as in all things, and many were drawn to the guitar for this very reason: it epitomized musical ease in the popular imagination. As I have argued, the same cultural forces shaped the Guitarre royalle , whose blunted technical demands signaled an unexpected departure for Corbetta from his earlier explorations of guitar virtuosity.

Some seventeenth-century amateurs were excellent musicians, and not all French guitar music coddled the musical novice. Although this instrument seems to have engaged with issues of ease at a fundamental level, many genres, instruments, and composers grappled with the limits of technical difficulty. Ease was a defining characteristic of the premier French vocal genre of the seventeenth century, for instance.

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In each book Marais employed a new scheme for juggling the competing demands of professionals and amateurs, teachers and students. Their particular modes of consumption could not help but guide the production and marketing of music by composers and publishers.