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Later, missiles are thrown at police after what locals say is a dispute between a protester and a police officer. Rioters attack banks and loot shops.

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Shortly after, missiles are thrown in Brixton, south London. Rioters loot stores and destroy vehicles. Rioting follows in Ealing in the west and Woolwich in the east. London Mayor Boris Johnson says he will cut short his holiday and return. Looting and violence spread to Britain's second biggest city, Birmingham.

London riots: Almost 3,300 offences investigated

Large fires break out in Croydon, south London. A police station is set alight in Birmingham and officers are called to a number of incidents in the northwest port city of Liverpool. He says there will be 16, police on the streets of the capital.

Cameron visits Croydon to see the damage from the previous night's violence. Johnson visits Clapham to thank volunteers for cleaning up. In Salford, Greater Manchester, rioters throw bricks at police and set fire to buildings. A police station is firebombed by 30 to 40 males in Nottingham. Cars are burned and stores looted in West Bromwich and Wolverhampton in central England.

A surge in police numbers and heavy rain in many places help to calm streets in London, although missiles are thrown at police in Eltham in south London. Cameron tells parliament police tactics had failed at the start of the rioting. The Association of Chief Police Officers head, Hugh Orde, says "The fact that politicians chose to come back is an irrelevance in terms of the tactics that were by then developing.

Richard Mannington Bowes, who was injured an attack in Ealing on Aug. A year-old man has been arrested. The number of arrests across seven police forces reaches 2,, of whom 1, have been charged. Three people charged with the murder of the men in Birmingham on Aug London, United Kingdom.

Birmingham, United Kingdom. Burning timbers crash to the floor, after a shop was set alight in Woolwich, southeast London. Some aspects often related to deprived urban estates, like meagre physical environment and lack of local associational life, do not seem to directly incentivize to rioting the same way that the five aspects included in our model do, at least not judging from the Stockholm case.

With the aim to understand the background, outbreak and process of the riots in Stockholm , we conducted in-depth interviews with 18 strategically selected individuals with first-hand knowledge of the conditions and issues related to the riots. The interviewees included civil society activists, social workers, youth centre employees and local police officers. The interviewees were chosen either based on our previous knowledge of civil society in the areas studied or suggestions from other interviewees, as well as our interest in including a variety of perspectives in the study.

View all notes These locals are key informants with important knowledge of their communities. The interviewees live, work or both in the suburb of Husby, where the riots originated, and neighbouring Rinkeby, where the riots spread on the second day. Several of the interviewees were in the streets during the riots trying, as concerned citizens, community leaders and police officers, to stop them.

Due to their roles in the affected residential areas, they also have large social networks and understanding of social problems in the area that help understand the mechanisms of riots. In addition to interviews, we used archival material and secondary material.

View all notes. We see interviewing people who are part of the local civil society or otherwise involved with youths as the best option to gain insights into the local conditions that help us understand the general logic of riots. Why, one may ask, did we not interview the rioters themselves? In part, our decision reflected the practical difficulties of interviewing rioters. For example, compared to the English riots of , which generated a large material based on interviews with arrested participants Clarke Clarke, R. Hook : Waterside Press.

A mathematical model of the London riots and their policing | Scientific Reports

This approach is different from process-tracing approaches that require knowledge of intentions, or minute detail of the process that led up to a decisions and action. We did not select persons to interview based on their proximity to the events that we explain or their special knowledge of the specific people that participated in the riots. Instead we aimed to interview people with insights about the incentives people may have for rioting, based on their experience of working with youths in the area or of seeking to prevent social unrest and related problems.

With this purpose, we need to understand local circumstances more broadly, and our interviewees are particularly well-positioned to provide us with important insights in this regard. This study is part of a larger research project, in which we examined the role of local civil society and street-level bureaucrats in working locally to address social problems after the riots The interviewees were asked whether they had their own views of what had happened and why.

We developed our own thinly rationalistic interpretation based on this data, complemented with media, archival and secondary material, as we found that previous theories of riots did not appear to explain this case convincingly. View all notes We conducted the interviews between 2 April and 5 October , between two and four years after the riots took place. Our explanation of the Stockholm riots is based on a rationalistic form of process tracing Bengtsson and Ruonavaara Bengtsson, B. Avner , M. Levi , J. Rosenthal , and B. Analytic Narratives. Reflexive Methodology. New Vistas for Qualitative Research.

Timmermans and Tavory Timmermans, S. We construct a cohesive story of the Stockholm riots based on our data with the goal of articulating an empirically grounded, middle-range theory on riots. Our aim is to construct a model that helps us understand how a specific incentive structure can make it reasonable, under certain circumstances, to take part in riots.

By specifying those conditions, circumstances and rationales, we aim to show why people in other similar contexts may act in similar ways. This logic thus allows for generalization based on one single case in terms of an expectation that similar mechanisms and patterns are relevant to understanding riots also in other similar contexts. Such expectations are based not on statistical generalization, but on the analytical idea that what is seen as thinly rational by one actor would also be rational to other similarly situated actors in a given type of context Bengtsson and Hertting Bengtsson, B.

Johnson Johnson, J. New York : Harper Collins.

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On 13 May , year-old Lenine Relvas-Martins was shot by police in his apartment in the Stockholm suburb of Husby and subsequently died from the injuries. But this statement was soon proven incorrect. Local residents provided photo evidence that the man was still in his home several hours after the police reported taking him to the hospital and, instead, a body bag was carried out from the building Radio Sweden Radio Sweden. Accessed February 7 The day after the shooting, a demonstration took place initiated by the local youth organization Megaphone Megafonen that called the incident a murder and claimed racist motives.

Accessed February 12 The police neither met with the protestors nor responded to their demands. On Sunday night, May 19, at p. That night more than cars were destroyed, a shopping centre was vandalized and a garage was set on fire, forcing the evacuation of a whole apartment block.

Behind the London riots a multitude of causes

Three police officers were injured by stones thrown by participants in the riots, which continued until in the morning. Each night until 24 May there were more incidents, more cars set on fire, and new confrontations with the police, as the riots spread to neighbouring suburbs as well as to other cities. Stockholm : Stockholmia. While it is often noted that Husby has a relatively vibrant civil society and strong sense of identity e. Stockholm: Nationella operativa avdelningen. In the Rinkeby-Kista borough, where Husby is located, the percentage of children who live under the poverty line is 37 percent, compared to 12 percent nationally Save the Children Save the Children.

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